Abadie, Charles (1842-1932) French ophthalmologist, professor of ophthalmology in Paris. Graduating in Medicine in 1868 he served as interne in Paris; and then studied ophthalmology in Vienna and Berlin, serving as assistant in the Clinic of A. von Graefe. Returning to Paris he became the Chief of Clinic for de Wecker; later he opened his own clinic, which grew and was subsequently located on Boulevard St. Germain. He retired from active practice about 1912, but continued to attend medical societies, visited his old clinic and wrote medical articles until 1927. For more than fifty years he was an important figure among the ophthalmologists of France. In 1876 he published his two volume treatise on diseases of the eye: Traité des maladies des veux.. 2 vols., Paris 1876-1877 and in 1881: Leçons de clinique ophthalmologique recueillies_par le Dr. Parenteau. Paris 1881. Although not given to devising operations or instruments, he was known as a very skilful operator. He contributed to the great many short, clinical papers, especially devoted to ocular therapeutics. Early he became interested in glaucoma. Abadie kept his preference for iridectomy, in all acute and inflammatory cases; and chronic glaucoma, chose miotics for principal treatment, and sympathectomy, or trephining, if operation finally necessary. He emphasized importance of the sympathetic nervous system in glaucoma and in some other ocular conditions; and recommended paracarotid sympathectomy for optic atrophy. While in de Wecker’s Clinic he urged the use of jequirity for trachoma. He always showed an active interest eye conditions attending diseases of central nervous system. He was Vice-president of the Section on Ophthalmology in the International Medical Congress held at Washington, D.C., 1887; and read a paper on Certain derangements of ocular motility and their treatment‘. He also opened the discussion of a paper by Henry Power on “Microbes in eye diseases”. As lecturer and speaker in medical societies he was always heard with attention and interest.(by Edward ^Jackson).AJO 1932,16:264. Annales d’Oculistique 1932, 159:689-695. Jubilé du Docteur Charles Abadie (50 years ophthalmologist) by Lapersonne. JPW

Abbe, Ernst Karl (1840-1905) German Professor for Physics, one of the founders of the Carl Zeiss Foundation. Ernst Karl Abbe was born in Eisenach, Germany. He received a scholarship and graduated from Gottingen University in 1861. He joined the University of Jena in 1863 where he became professor of physics and mathematics in 1870. He was named director of astronomical and meteorological observatories in 1878. In the meantime, 1866, he had joined the Carl Zeiss workshop as Research Director and, with him, began to produce a scientific under-pinning for optical products, producing in 1872 new types of optical glass. (In 1892 there were already 76 sorts of glass!) .Together, Zeiss and Abbe produced a compound microscope of unparalleled quality. This instrument was the “father” all modern compound microscopes in use today. Abbe left, in 1889, all his personal fortune to the Zeiss Company to create the still existing Zeiss Foundation. (Schmitz Handbuch zur Geschichte der Optik, Suppl.2, Das Mikroskop, Vol.2a:147-163, Wayenborgh 1989). JPW

Abbot, Frank Wayland (1841-1901) American oto- and ophthalmologist born in Burma. He was educated at Falley Seminary, Fulton, N.Y., at the University of Rochester, N.Y., and at the medical department of the University of Buffalo, receiving his M.D. in 1866, and devoting himself entirely to ophthalmology and otology. Abbot wrote numerous articles in various journals and translated Helmholtz’s “Recentprogress in Theory of Vision” and was one of the founders of the Charity Eye an Ear Hospital. American Encyclopedia of Ophthalmology, Vol.1,p.20-21.

Abdel-Latif, Ata. A. (1933- ) American biochemist of Palestinean origin, working on the eye, Regents’ Professor at the Department of Biochemistry and molecular Biology,

Medical College of Georgia. He was born in Beitunya, Ramallah Palestine and studied at De Paul University Chicago with B.S. and M.S. degree (Chemistry) granted in 1955 and 1958 respectively. He then received Ph.D. degree in 1963 from Mt Sinai Medical Research Foundation and Illinois Institute of Technology. He has been in the present position as above since 1987, after having served as Associate Professor at the Department of Cell and molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia (1967-1974) as the Professor (1974­1987). He served as a Visiting Professor to the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nottingham, School of Medicine, Nottingham, England (1975-1976). He trained many postgraduate students and postdoctoral fellows. His editorial assignments include Neurochemistry International (1989-1992), Membrane Biochemistry (1987-1994) anExecutive Editor of Experimental Eye Research since 1992. His research interest embraces neurotransmitters, cell signaling, phosphoinositides, phosphoproteins, phospholipases and protein kinases, second messengers, arachidonic acid release and metabolism, iris-ciliary body, smooth muscle and nervous tissues. He has published more than 140 original papers in these fields and some examples are Endothelin-1 stimulates the release of arachidonic acid and prostaglandins in cultured human ciliary muscle cells: activation of phospholipase A2. Exp. Eye Res. 65: 73, 1997″, “Calcitonin gene-related peptide relaxes rabbit iris dilator muscle via cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms: cross-talk between the sensory and sympathetic nervous systems. Curr. Eye Res. 17: 197, 1998″ , “Activation of particulate guanylyl cyclase by endothelins in cultured SV-40 transformed cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells. Life Sci. 64: 161, 1998″ and “Aqueous humor, iris-ciliary body and trabecular meshwork. Ocular Biochemistry, pp. 52-93, ed. Harding J. J., Chapman and Hall, Publ. London, 1997″. He is a recipient of the Nih Merit Award (1989) and Alcon Research Institutes Award (1990) and many other honor awards for the excellence of his research. He is an elected member of many professional societies, e.g. American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, International Society for Eye Research, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology and many others. (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912-2100, U. S. A.. phone: +1-706-721-3364; fax: +1-706-721-6608; e-mail: LABDEL@mail.mcg.edu )